After Leaving Mr Mackenzie by Jean Rhys

First published in 1930, After Leaving Mr Mackenzie was Jean Rhys’ second novel. Set in Paris in the late 1920s, it features a woman in her thirties, Julia Martin. For the past six months, Julia has been surviving on an allowance of 300 francs per week which she receives from her ex-lover, Mr Mackenzie.

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When we first meet Julia, she is living in a room in a tawdry hotel in Paris – the sort of place where the staircase smells of the landlady’s cats. She is down on her luck, tired of life, and her looks have started to fade. Here’s a brief but telling description of Julia:

Her eyes gave her away. By her eyes and the deep circles under them you saw that she was a dreamer, that she was vulnerable – too vulnerable ever to make a success of a career of chance.

She made herself up elaborately and carefully; yet it was clear that what she was doing had long ceased to be a labour of love and had become partly a mechanical process, partly a substitute for the mask she would have liked to wear. (pg 11)

As the story unfolds, we gather that Julia’s affair with Mr Mackenzie ended rather unpleasantly. He has distanced himself from Julia, and all transactions take place by way of his solicitor, Henri Legros. One Tuesday, Julia receives a letter from Legros informing her that the weekly allowance will be discontinued – enclosed is a final payment of 1,500 francs. Even though she had always expected this would happen one day, Julia feels bruised and discarded. There is no place for her in their world:

When she thought of the combination of Mr Mackenzie and Maître Legros, all sense of reality deserted her and it seemed to her that there were no limits at all to their joint powers of defeating and hurting her. Together the two perfectly represented organized society, in which she had no place and against which she had not a dog’s chance. (pg. 17)

Consequently, Julia decides to confront Mr Mackenzie, and she follows him to a restaurant with the aim of having it out. At this point in the novel, Rhys does something very interesting – the point of view switches from Julia to Mr Mackenzie, and we get a sense of his perspective. Mackenzie is in his late forties, comfortably off, and rather lacking in compassion or honourable moral values:

He had more than once allowed himself to be drawn into affairs which he had regretted bitterly afterwards, though when it came to getting out of these affairs his business instinct came to his help, and he got out undamaged. (pg. 19)

As Mackenzie waits for his order at the restaurant, a place he had visited with Julia when they were together, his thoughts turn to their affair:

He had lied; he had made her promises which he never intended to keep; and so on, and so on. All part of the insanity, for which he was not responsible.

Not that many lies had been necessary. After seeing him two or three times she had spent the night with him at a tawdry hotel. Perhaps that was the reason why, when he came to think of it, he had never really liked her. (pg. 19)

Julia’s arrival at the restaurant heralds one of the pivotal scenes in the novel. It’s too intricate, too subtle to describe here, but it’s a great piece of writing. Julia refuses her ex-lover’s payoff and leaves with her dignity reasonably intact; Mackenzie hopes that no one has witnessed their exchange. Luckily for Julia, the encounter is noted by an Englishman named George Horsfield, who is sitting at the next table. When Julia leaves the restaurant, Horsfield follows. Julia has had a difficult life, and it shows – she appears tired and depressed. Horsfield befriends Julia, gives her 1,500 francs and advises her to return to London for a while.

On her arrival in London, Julia takes a room at a shabby hotel in Bloomsbury. What follows is a series of bruising encounters as Julia re-establishes contact with her family, most notably her sister, Norah and her Uncle Griffiths. In direct contrast to Julia, Norah has done the ‘right thing’ by staying at home to care for their invalid mother. Norah and Uncle Griffiths clearly disapprove of Julia’s decision to go her own way in Paris. (Julia had been married but subsequently left her husband. Uncle Griffiths is of the opinion that she ought to have extracted some kind of financial settlement from this man). Griffiths dismisses Julia with a one-pound note – he simply doesn’t care and wants little more to do with her.

Julia’s attempts to gain support from an ex-lover, Neil James, prove equally disheartening. James promises that he will send Julia some money so that she can have a little rest. In the end, he sends £20 and makes it clear that there will be no more handouts. Even Horsfield, now back in London, seems to be withdrawing his support. He seems to find her attractive one minute, unappealing the next. (Rhys also gives us access to Horsfield’s viewpoint from time to time.)

This is my second reading of Mr Mackenzie. It’s quite a difficult novel to describe, but I wanted to try to write about it before going on to read more of Rhys’ work. The writing is superb, the characters are complex and nuanced. Rhys appears to have mined her own past, her own experiences of the harsh reality of life as a lone woman in the city. Julia seems trapped; she is weary of life and drinks as a means of blunting the pain of her situation. Her life reads like a series of fragmented episodes, and there is little hope of a bright outlook. Rhys exposes the hypocrisy and cruelty of society at the time: no one seems to care about Julia; she is shunned by her family and acquaintances. Her predicament reminded me a little of the final stages of Lily Bart’s situation in The House of Mirth, another bruising and unforgettable story.

I have another couple of novels by Rhys: Voyage in the Dark and Good Morning, Midnight. I’d also like to read her first novel, Quartet.

I’m finding it difficult to describe the impact of reading After Leaving Mr Mackenzie – it’s a brilliant piece of work. I’ll finish with a quote that seems to capture something of Julia’s life, the constant swings from depression to glimmers of hope and back to despair once more:

She was crying now because she remembered that her life had been a long succession of humiliations and mistakes and pains and ridiculous efforts. Everybody’s life was like that. At the same time, in a miraculous manner, some essence of her was shooting upwards like a flame. She was great. She was a defiant flame shooting upwards not to plead but to threaten. Then the flame sank down again, useless, having reached nothing. (pg. 94-95)

After Leaving Mr Mackenzie is published in the UK by Penguin Modern Classics. Source: personal copy. Book 18/20 in my #TBR20.

68 thoughts on “After Leaving Mr Mackenzie by Jean Rhys

  1. MarinaSofia

    So pleased you reviewed this! One of my favourite books – and I don’t say that lightly. It means it’s one of the books I’ve carried with me across all of my country and house moves, together with ‘Sleep It Off Lady’. Jean Rhys is so sublte, nuanced, poignant… and not that well known nowadays, except for ‘Wide Sargasso Sea’.

    Reply
    1. JacquiWine Post author

      Thank you. I’m not surprised to hear this is one of your favourite books…I just knew you would be Jean Rhys fan! It’s funny how Wide Sargasso Sea tends to get so much more attention than her other work. I want to read it, but I’m glad I started with one of her earlier novels.

      Reply
      1. MarinaSofia

        Wide Sargasso Sea is actually very different from her other books, so perhaps readers don’t like her ‘depressed’ style. And whatever gave you the idea I might be a Jean Rhys fan? ;-)

        Reply
        1. JacquiWine Post author

          Haha! Well, it wasn’t anything to do with having a depressed style, that’s for sure! I know you’re a fan of writers with that rare ability to occupy the minds of people in despair, characters struggling to get by on the margins of existence…not to mention fine prose. Need I say more? :-)

          Reply
      2. poppypeacockpens

        I think being linked to Jane Eyre inevitably makes WSS the most known of her novels. Brilliant post Jacqui & your description of Julia reminds me of the blurb on Pizzichini’s portrait of JR The Blue Hour: ‘a woman in constant psychological turmoil whose blazing talent rescued her time and time again from the abyss… a woman whose writing was both her life and her lifeline’

        Have her Completed Stories but really like the sound of this too!

        Reply
        1. JacquiWine Post author

          Thanks, Poppy. Yes, you’re right – WSS must have benefited from the Jane Eyre connection. Just looked at Pizzichini’s The Blue Hour. I’m not usually a fan of biographies, but this one looks fascinating. One for the wishlist as I’ve started another round of #TBR20 which means no purchases for the next three months or so! As a writer, Rhys must have poured so much of the spirit of her own life into her work.

          I’ll be interested to hear your thoughts on her short stories. You’ve probably seen this, but there’s a nice piece on her stories here:

          http://www.theguardian.com/books/2014/apr/14/jean-rhys-brief-survey-short-story

          Reply
          1. poppypeacockpens

            Hadn’t seen this – great insight : so thanks :) The Collected Short Stories seems to have all the stories referred to – might have to squeeze Till September Petronella in before dinner

            The phrase ‘the better she got, the less she was read’ is quite ppoignant, eh?

            She’s almost beginning to sound like a Ferrante character…

            Reply
            1. JacquiWine Post author

              Very welcome. Yes, terribly poignant. The article is spot on, isn’t it? The emotional precision; women imprisoned in their isolation; lives falling slipping down a steep slide. It’s all there.

              I wonder if Ferrante has ever read Jean Rhys? Miss Verney’s situation has that sense of desperation…

              Reply
  2. gertloveday

    Oh, I shuddered when I saw your book this week- such terrifying bleakness. I really don’t think I could read it a second time. How good she is on the special humiliation of the woman dependent on the passing fancies of men for whom such women mean so little (like Blanche Dubois, always depending on the kindness of strangers). “Wide Sargasso Sea” is far and away my favourite.

    Reply
    1. JacquiWine Post author

      It is terrifying and Julia’s situation is so desperate…I think that’s why I found it so difficult to write about this book. That’s such a good point about her dependency of the whims of men: acquaintances, lovers and family members (all of whom let her down at various points). I hadn’t thought of the link with Blanche Dubois, but that’s a great connection.

      I’m really glad to hear of your love of Wide Sargasso Sea; it’s on the wishlist!

      Reply
  3. hastanton

    I am definitely going to read some JR this year . I have read Wide Sargasso Sea but I am reliably informed that others are even better . Loved the sound of this from your review.

    Reply
    1. JacquiWine Post author

      Oh yes, do read some Rhys, Helen. I’m glad you like the sound of Mr Mackenzie…it is bleak though, not one to read if you’re feeling a bit low. I’ve heard some great things about her early work too – several other bloggers and readers seem to rate them.

      Reply
  4. Brian Joseph

    Great review Jacqui. There are some books whose impact is difficult to describe.

    The House of Mirth comparison helped build the picture for me. Tales of people falling into desperate straits can be so compelling.

    That last quote is so powerful and depressing.

    Reply
    1. JacquiWine Post author

      Thanks, Brian. I’m glad the House of Mirth comparison was useful. I can’t recall if you’ve read the Wharton (I think you have), but Julia’s situation definitely reminded me of Lily Bart’s, certainly in the closing stages. It’s a devastating quote, isn’t it?

      Reply
    1. JacquiWine Post author

      Oh, thank you, Cleo! I found it very hard to write about this book because it’s so deeply affecting for such a slim novel and the impact of reading it is difficult to describe. She was a great writer, ahead of her time…

      Reply
    1. JacquiWine Post author

      Oh, wonderful! I’d love to hear your thoughts on it, Karen. I need to read the others but this one certainly stood up to rereading (and I wanted to revisit it before moving on).

      Reply
      1. kaggsysbookishramblings

        You never know – I might get to it soon. Or maybe a re-read of Wide Sargasso sea – we shall see!

        Reply
  5. Cathy746books

    This sounds fascinating! As I was reading your review I kept thinking that it sounded like The House of Mirth too. The only Rhys I have in the 746 is Wide Sargasso Sea.

    Reply
    1. JacquiWine Post author

      It’s funny, isn’t it? The Lily Bart connection comes through quite strongly here: the bleakness of Julia’s situation: the way she is treated and shunned by those around her; her ultimate reliance on men. I think you’d like this novel very much, Cathy. You have Wide Sargasso Sea, though, and I’d love to hear your thoughts on it!

      Reply
  6. Claire Stokes (@maudie43)

    It’s great that so many people seem to be reading Jean Rhys at the moment, I went through a phase of reading EVERYTHING she’d written about 30 years ago. I always felt that I liked Wide Sargasso Sea less than her others, I wonder if I’d feel the same now. Time to revisit some of her books I think.

    Reply
    1. JacquiWine Post author

      Isn’t it? Another great writer enjoying a bit of revival. Oh yes, do revisit them, Claire, especially if it’s been a while since you first read her work. It would be fascinating to see how you find them now.

      Reply
  7. Naomi

    Your review reminds me once again that I really should get around to reading one of her books. I’m sure they are all good – do you have a favourite?

    Reply
    1. JacquiWine Post author

      Mr Mackenzie is the only Rhys I’ve read so far, but you’re right, her books have a great reputation. Some of the other commenters might be able to help with this, but I suspect that either Mr Mackenzie or Quartet would be a good introduction to her earlier work. Alternatively, you could go for her best-known novel, Wide Sargasso Sea, which tells the story of Mr Rochester’s wife from Jane Eyre. I’d like to read them all!

      Reply
  8. TJ @ MyBookStrings

    I tried reading Good Morning, Midnight, but it didn’t grab me. However, I do believe that was because it was not the right moment for the book. You do make it sound like an author I need to read. (I will need to wait a little bit though; I am still recovering from the loneliness in Academy Street…)

    Reply
    1. JacquiWine Post author

      Timing is so important, isn’t it? I’ve a feeling that Mr Mackenzie might be an easier entry point than Good Morning, Midnight when it comes to Jean Rhys, but that’s just my feeling based on what I know of GMM.

      Oh yes, do leave a gap between Academy Street and Rhys; too much sadness and hopelessness would be a heavy burden to bear.

      Reply
  9. Scott W.

    Wait, you mean Wide Sargasso Sea isn’t Rhys’ “depressed style”? That doesn’t exactly make me want to run out to read her other books. I’m kidding – a bit. I actually did read some other Rhys, but I found her works difficult to take in succession and have had little desire to revisit them. Perhaps I should revisit that response.

    Reply
    1. JacquiWine Post author

      Haha! Well, not having read WSS, I probably can’t comment on that! I can image a run of Rhys being more than a little hard to bear…the desperation and bleakness of it all. Perhaps just revisit one to see how you fare? (I would have thought you’d love her work, Scott!)

      Reply
  10. Guy Savage

    I went on Rhys bender some years ago. I don’t recommend reading too many of hers in a row even though that’s what I did (with a few breaks in between).

    Reply
    1. JacquiWine Post author

      Any favourites, Guy? Would you suggest I read Quartet before moving on to Voyage in the Dark or Good Morning, Midnight (both of which I already own)?

      Let me know if you’ve reviewed any – I couldn’t see any posts at yours, so I guess you must have read them before the blog kicked off.

      Reply
  11. Max Cairnduff

    Rhys is a marvel, one of my favourite writers. I’ve reviewed two of hers at mine, but not this one. It is though as you’ve seen in my #tbr20 and seeing this I’m really glad it is or I’d already be considering abandoning the #tbr20 thing so I could fit this in.

    “After seeing him two or three times she had spent the night with him at a tawdry hotel. Perhaps that was the reason why, when he came to think of it, he had never really liked her.” Ouch. Rhys really is a marvel.

    Reply
    1. JacquiWine Post author

      You’ll love it, Max. It blew me away. I’m really looking forward to reading your review of this one whenever you get to it in your twenty (a fine inclusion, you’ve chosen well).

      That quote is very telling, isn’t it? So devastatingly precise and brutal, so incisive too. I’ll check out your reviews – I know I’ve seen your Good Morning, Midnight piece, but possibly not the other one (Quartet?).

      Reply
  12. 1streading

    Interesting how Wide Sargasso Sea has come to represent Rhys for many readers (myself included): some writers seem prone to this. I like the idea of the shift in narration – it sounds like another book I should get round to reading!

    Reply
    1. JacquiWine Post author

      It is…and likewise, how The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie has come to stand for Muriel Spark (which reminds me, I really need to read some Spark!). The shifting POV is interesting, and it never feels awkward or clumsy. I think you should try one of Rhys’s early novels (if you haven’t done so already). :-)

      Reply
  13. Caroline

    She’s one of a few authors I’ve read everything of. She’s a marvel, as Max says. I read them one after the other and so they are a bit blurred. Wide Sragasso Sea stands out, as it’s different.
    I loved her short stories as well. It saddens me to think it’s inspired by her own life.

    Reply
    1. JacquiWine Post author

      Somehow I knew you would be a Rhys fan; she feels like your kind of writer. I tend not to read biographies (or only very rarely) but Pichizzini’s portrait of Rhys, The Blue Hour, sounds fascinating and tragic in equal measure. It is terribly sad to think of her life…

      Reply
        1. JacquiWine Post author

          Well, I guess I had a feeling you’d like her work. The unfinished memoir sounds interesting too; I’d like to know more about Rhys’s life (perhaps once I’ve read one or two of her other novels).

          Reply
  14. Maria Behar

    I only know Rhys from her acclaimed novel,”Wide Sargasso Sea” (which I must confess I haven’t read), so I’m not familiar with this novel that you have so excellently reviewed. From your detailed description of the characters, as well as Rhys’s flawless prose, it’s evident that there’s a lot of psychological depth in “After Leaving Mr. McKenzie”. I need to put this book on my Goodreads TBR shelves!

    Thanks for the great review!! : )

    Reply
    1. JacquiWine Post author

      You’re very welcome – thanks for dropping by, Maria!

      Yes, Rhys manages to pack a quite a lot of psychological acuity into this short novel. We see different sides to several of the main characters so they never feel ‘black-and-white’ so to speak. I hope you like this one should you get the opportunity to read it.

      Reply
      1. Maria Behar

        Oh, I’m sure I will! However, I think I’ll start with “Wide Sargasso Sea”, just because I’d like to get Rhys’s take on “the madwoman in the attic”. Also, “Jane Eyre” happens to be my favorite classic. I don’t think any of the film versions of it have done justice to Jane. So perhaps Bronte herself didn’t do justice to Rocherster’s first bride, either.

        Reply
        1. JacquiWine Post author

          Good idea, especially if Jane Eyre is your favourite classic! I enjoyed the Mia Wasikowska/Michael Fassbender film, but I watched it again recently, and there’s something missing from Wasikowska’s performance. She’s just not feisty enough for the Jane I’d envisaged from reading the novel!

          I don’t know if you’ve ever seen the 2006 BBC adaptation with Ruth Wilson and Toby Stephens, but I thought it was very good. Wilson and Stephens Make an excellent Jane and Rochester.

          Reply
  15. Emma

    Excellent review, Jacqui. Rhys has been on my mental TBR since Max’s reviews.

    I’m not sure I want to read this one right away though. I have the feeling Julia would get on my nerves. Women had more possibilities to earn an income in the 1920s than in the 19th century. On second thought, perhaps I should read it to see if my reading confirms my impression. (prejudice?)

    I have read Wide Sargasso Sea, knowing that it’s different from her others. It didn’t leave lasting memories although I recall I liked it well enough.

    Reply
    1. JacquiWine Post author

      Thanks, Emma. Yes, Max is a big fan of Rhys. Max will be reading Mr Mackenzie at some point in the next few months (it’s in his #TBR20), and I’m sure he’ll do a great job of reviewing it. (I struggled to find the right words for this one, to be honest – it’s pretty devastating stuff).

      Haha, you could be right there. I think you might find Julia a bit frustrating, but I would love to hear your thoughts on how her situation and choices compare to a woman’s life in 19th-century Paris. See how you feel once you’ve read Max’s review, or maybe you could read along with him?

      Wide Sargasso Sea seems to divide people; some readers love it citing it as one of the great novels of the 20th century, but others seem to prefer Rhys’s earlier work. It’s interesting that it didn’t leave much of a lasting impression on you. I’d like to read it at some point, but Voyage in the Dark and Good Morning, Midnight ought to take precedence as I already own those two.

      Reply
      1. Emma

        It’s just that, as I was reading your review I was thinking it would have been more productive to try to work than to chase one ex-lover after the other for money and expect them to be willing to support her. My mind must be too far away from the mind of a woman of that time.
        But I can’t help thinking about some Victorian heroines who seem more resourceful (Hardy’s Ethelberta, for example)

        I’d like to start with Quartet or Good Morning Midnight.
        I’m thinking about doing the #TBR20 thing too. So probably no buying books for me in the next future…

        Reply
        1. JacquiWine Post author

          Yes, I know what you mean. We don’t know much about Julia’s backstory other than her relationship history, but I suspect she has never worked. I don’t know how easy it would have been for her to get a respectable job. She doesn’t appear to have any training or experience, so I’m not sure how many options would have been open to her at the time. Difficult to say…

          I’ve read others by Hardy but not Ethelberta. Looking forward to your billet though (I think you’re reading it at the moment?)

          Back to Rhys, Quartet might be a good one to start with as it was her first novel. I kind of wish I’d started there myself!

          Reply
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  17. litlove

    I’m fascinated by Jean Rhys but – shameful confession – I haven’t even read Wide Sargasso Sea, though I’ve owned a copy of it for years and years. I don’t know why I’m so reticent. It must be because I feel I know more about her than is comfortable, and that like Patricia Highsmith, I might end up admiring her books a great deal without loving them. But really, none of that is any excuse. She is an author I really must read.

    Reply
    1. JacquiWine Post author

      Oh yes, do read her! As you’ll have gathered, I’m late to Rhys myself (and I don’t even own Wide Sargasso Sea – not yet, anyway) but I thought Mr Mackenzie was excellent. I really loved the writing, and the story held me close. It pains me to think of her life; she must have poured so much of the spirit of her existence into her work.

      Reply
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  19. shoshibookblog

    I used to teach WSS to A Level students and it was starting to feel like I’d read it too many times (if it’s possible to OD on Jean Rhys). I recently re-read Good Morning Midnight though and loved it so much. After reading your review it looks like After Leaving Mr Mackenzie is going to have to be my next Rhys read – it’s also a reminder that she does come up with the most wonderful titles for her novels.

    Reply
    1. JacquiWine Post author

      Doesn’t she just! I doubt whether I’ve done it justice here, but I thought Mr Mackenzie was a very fine novel indeed. Such a powerful portrait of a woman exposed to life’s hypocrisies and cruelties. Glad to hear you loved Good Morning, Midnight as I have a copy on the shelves. I can’t quite decide whether to try it as my next Rhys or to plump for Voyage in the Dark instead…

      Reply
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  22. Max Cairnduff

    I’m glad looking back at this you found it a difficult novel to describe too. I found writing my own review of this one surprisingly tricky, much more so than I’d expected. It’s excellent, but it’s subtle in its excellence.

    Reply
    1. JacquiWine Post author

      Yes, it’s a tricky novel to capture, but you’ve made a fine job of it in your review. I really wanted to say something more about the restaurant scene, but the words just wouldn’t come at the time. It’s such a subtle scene, in terms of both the dialogue and the gestures that pass between Julia and Mr M.

      Have you looked at La Femme de Gilles by Madeleine Bourdouxhe? In hindsight, there’s a touch of Jean Rhys about it, a similar sense of bleakness and despair (Guy mentioned it at some point too.) I reviewed it last year if it’s of interest:

      https://jacquiwine.wordpress.com/2015/08/05/la-femme-de-gilles-by-madeleine-bourdouxhe-tr-by-faith-evans/

      Reply
      1. Max Cairnduff

        I’d missed that. It’s weird. I follow your blog. I get email updates. And yet still you have this knack for pulling out incredibly interesting archive reviews. I’ll take a closer look.

        Reply
        1. JacquiWine Post author

          Haha! WordPress email notifications can be a bit flaky at times. Sometimes they just stop working for a couple of weeks. It’s happened to me before. I think you’d like the Madeleine Bourdouxhe. There’s also a touch of Simenon about it. I’ve just posted on one of his romans durs, The Widow, and there are some similarities between the two novellas. It didn’t occur to me at the time, but the more I think about it the more I can see a connection.

          Reply
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